Hardened mineral deposits formed in the kidney are called urinary or kidney stones (calculi). These originate as microscopic particles and over the course of time develop into stones. Medically this condition is known as nephrolithiasis or renal stone disease. The kidneys filter waste products from the blood and add them to the urine. When waste materials in the urine do not dissolve completely and the kidney is unable to evacuate them, crystals and kidney stones are likely to form. Some stones may pass out of the kidney or get lodged in the ureter (tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder) and cause severe pain that starts from the low back and radiates to the side or groin. A lodged stone can block the flow of urine and build a backpressure in the affected ureter and kidney. Increased pressure results in stretching and spasm causing severe pain.
Sign & Symptoms of Kidney Stone (Urinary Stone)
Small and smooth kidney stones may remain in the kidney or pass without causing pain (called “silent” stones). Stones that lodge in the ureter (tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder) cause spasm in the urinary system and produce pain. This pain is unrelated to the size of the stone.
Other symptoms of kidney stones may include the following:
- Blood in the urine
- Increased frequency of urination
- Nausea and vomiting
- Bladder neck incision
- Pain and burning during urination
- Fever, chills, loss of appetite
- Urinary tract infection
Diagnosis of Kidney Stone
- Complete Blood Count
- Kidney Function Test
- Urine Routine & Microscopy
- Whole Abdomen with Kidney, Ureter & Bladder (KUB)
- Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP)
- X-Ray KUB
Kidney Stone (Urinary Stone) Treatment
Percutaneous Nephrostolithotomy (PCNL) is performed under epidural or spinal anaesthesia. Percutaneous ( through skin) removal of kidney stones (lithotomy) is accomplished through the most direct route. A telescope along with the mechanical lithotripter in inserted to break the stone into fine particles so as to achieve a stone-free status in large and complicated stones. This procedure usually requires hospitalization, and most patients resume normal activity within 2 weeks.